Integrating the Message of Turtle Conservation into a Science Teaching Plan
for Elementary School in Bengkulu City, Indonesia#

Aceng Ruyani 1#,
1Program Studi Pendidikan Biologi, FKIP, Universitas Bengkulu, Jalan Raya Kandang Limun, Bengkulu, Indonesia.

ABSTRAK

Penelitian ini bertujuan mengembangkan model Rencana Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran (RPP) IPA untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan dan apresiasi siswa tentang keberadaan kura-kura. Model diperuntukkan bagi siswa SD kelas V dengan waktu bagi setiap RPP sekitar 80 menit menggunakan delapan spesimen kura-kura hidup (D. subplana, A. cartilaginea M. emys, H. spinosa, N. platynota, C. odhamii, S. crassiocollis, and C. amboinensis) dan bahan cetakan. Posttest dan mengukuran sikap dilaksanakan satu pekan setelah penerapan RPP. Lima belas guru IPA berpartisipasi dalam workshop untuk sosialisasi model, kemudian mereka menerapkan model itu di masing-masing sekolah yang secara keseluruhan melibatkan 515 siswa. Data kuantitativ menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata skor pretest adalah 47,5 yang berarti sebagian besar siswa tidak mengenal baik reptil tersebut. Keberhasilan penerapan RPP dihitung berdasarkan selisih antara pretest dan posttest, menunjukkan pengetahuan siswa (63,8) nyata meningkat (35.2%) setelah implementasi. Sementara tingkat apresiasi keberadaan kura-kura adalah 47,4 yang tergolong sangat baik dan memiliki korelasi (r=0.6) dengan skor posttest. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa aplikasi model nyata dapat meningkatkan pengetahuan siswa SD yang terkait dengan tingkat apresiasi mereka tentang keberadaan kura-kura.
Kata kunci: Kura-kura, pendidikan konservasi, sekolah dasar           

ABSTRACT

This research was aimed to develop a model of Science Teaching Plan (STP) to increase knowledge and appreciation of student about existing turtles. The model focused on fifth grade class of elementary school (SD), and duration of each STP was 80 minutes using eight live turtle specimens (D. subplana, A. cartilaginea M. emys, H. spinosa, N. platynota, C. odhamii, S. crassiocollis, and C. amboinensis) and printed materials. Posttest and attitude measurement were performed separately one week after completing the STP. Fifteen science teachers participated on the workshop to socialize the model, and then each of them implemented it at their classes which were involved the amount of 515 students. Quantitative data revealed that average score of pretest is 47.5 that means majority of students were not know well the reptiles. Achievements of the STP were calculated by gap between the both tests; it revealed that knowledge of students (63.8) about the matter increased (35.2%) significantly after the implementation. Meanwhile degree of appreciation concerning the existing turtles was 47.4 which classified as ?excellent? and has a correlation (r=0.6) with the score of posttest. It can be concluded that the model can increase significantly the knowledge of SD students about the matter which is linked with the degree of their appreciation concerning the existing turtles.  
Key words: Turtle, conservation education, elementary school

#Presented on ?Seminar Internasional Pendidikan IV?, Bengkulu, Indonesia, December 6, 2008.*Corresponding author, E-mail: [email protected]

INTRODUCTION

Some published scientific reports (Ernst and Barbour, 1989; Iskandar, 2000) explained the present of tortoise and freshwater turtles in Sumatra, they recorded 15 species in the island, but unfortunately it is limited special report form Bengkulu province. Rizwar et al. (1998) reported that at Lebong district, Bengkulu, could be identified D. subplana, A. cartilaginea, H. emys, H. squinosa, C. dentata, S. crossicolis, C. Odhamii,N. platynota and C. amboinnensis. Meanwhile previously survey (Malvianti at al,, 2007; Fitri et al., 2007; Puspitasari et al., 2007; Novieta et al., 2007) revealed that that C. dentata was not found at the field or local trade, and M. emys is rare animal in Bengkulu. The facts are caused by several aspects such as highly demand, restricted habitat, lowly fertility, and lacking domestication (Kursini and Yazid, 2005). Bengkulu was harvesting area and participates as an upstream of global trading of the reptiles. It should be noticed that turtles for majority people in Bengkulu are viewed as a commodity only which are not linked with their cultural requirement. Collected live turtles from the province are transported to Jakarta enter into the turtle distribution process both inside and outside of Indonesia (Aeschylus, 2004). Recently in Bengkulu the reptiles are more profitable to trade in dried carapace and plastron form (Novianti et al., 2007), the modus is not easy to recognize by low enforcement, therefore it caused many turtles have to be scarified for the purpose.
Since wild management up till now is not yet fully adopted by the local government of Bengkulu, therefore high demand of turtles is never followed by sustainable efforts for the reptiles. Meanwhile several preliminary investigations revealed that D. subplana, C. Odhamii, C. amboinnensis are profitable species to breed commercially in Bengkulu (Syarifudin and Ruyani, 1998; Yufitri et al., 2007; Malinda et al. 2007; Evrianti et al., 2007). The ideal wild management has to indicate that general law enforcement towards protection of natural resources should be improved, a culturally appropriate effort for increasing young peoples? knowledge, appreciation, positive attitude, environmental awareness, and involvement in elementary school (SD) is necessary as a part of holistic conservation efforts.
A widely and well received postulate has stated that early elementary education is most effective in developing personal internalization of environmental awareness and appreciation in students (Muhibbinsyah, 1997). Furthermore Munandar (1985) stated that students on the fifth grade class of SD (11-12 years old) are characterized by (a) more interest to practical daily activity, (b) very realistic, curios, and wish to learn, (c) interest to specific subject matters, and (d) need adult person or teacher as a guidance for reaching their obsessions. Of course we agreed that conservation education program is moral responsibility from one generation to the next (Primark, 1998). Willcockson (2005) recommended that conservation teaching in SD would be organized by (1) building around systematic units, (2) scientific principles, (3) geographic and ecological units, and (4) reference to the context in social science. Subjects on the fifth grade class of SD curriculum, natural science especially, could be integrated pedagogically by turtle conservation messages via a model of science teaching-plan (STP) to increase knowledge and appreciation of student about the existing turtles.
Based on mentioned above, integrating the message of turtle conservation into a STP is necessary to implement. Furthermore the obtained model hopefully could be applied later as the supplement message of turtle conservation for local curriculum at certain SD in Indonesia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

1.  Live specimen collection of turtles
Limited number live specimen of D. subplana, A. cartilaginea, M. emys, H. spinosa, N. platynota, C. odhamii, S. crassiocollis, and C. amboinensis were collected from some regencies in Bengkulu province, Indonesia, and then cared out at the Biological Garden, inside the campus of Bengkulu University. The eight live specimens were used as the resources in preparing printed materials especially such as photos, leaflet, poster, and module.

2. Preparation of printed materials
A standard competency requirement, which was explicitly stated on the effective curriculum of SD (Depdiknas, 2004), ?student could identify pattern of organisms adaptation in their environment? was used as the main consideration to supplement the message of turtle conservation in designing the scenario of STP. All printed materials include module, photo, leaflet, poster, pretest, posttest, and attitude test were prepared in Bengkulu. Each of the materials was designed for special propose as a part of the whole mission to increase knowledge and appreciation of student concerning the turtles. Short descriptive and special propose of the materials (Fig. 1) are presented below.
The module was only prepared as a teacher reference of turtle education program during the real class implementation. It has to explain here about outline of the teacher reference. The module contains 20 pages in A4 size paper format which is divided into five chapters include; introduction, how to know turtles, kind of turtle in Bengkulu, STP activities, and closing. The module tried to give science teachers some rationales concerning the important of turtle conservation. It is received widely that competency of science teachers are not only indicated by their understanding about natural phenomenon but also should be followed by their ability to make an excellent learning atmosphere. The chapter of STP activities recommended some learning oriented in attempting to increase knowledge and appreciation of student concerning the exiting turtles. The core activities are subsequently include observation and discussion concerning; (1) simple method to recognize kind of turtles, (2) turtle behavior and their habitat, (3) turtle rescue from the destructive condition. Some aspects of integrating turtle conservation message into regularly STP on SD was adapted from the established module (Kardi et al., 2006).
Photos of the eight live specimens were made in colorful and postcard size which would be applied in some educative simulations during the real class implementation. One set of the photos contains eight postcards, and every the real class implementation required minimal three sets. This teaching aid could be used on every STP processes.
Leaflet was designed in A4 paper size with double side colorful printed about photos of the eight live specimens. One side expressed concerning the message of turtle conservation, and the other side explained habitat and general behavior of the turtle collections. Every student could obtain the leaflet for themselves, as consequence, it should be printed more than 700 pieces.
Poster contains the message of turtle conservation which was designed with one side colorful printed in two sizes; 63 x 44 cm and 40x 25 cm. The posters could be used in both teaching aid and public propaganda.
Both pretest and posttest were prepared on objective test form with four options to measure knowledge (cognitive) achievement about the existing turtles according to the competency indicators that have been determined previously. Basically the pretest and posttest are equal in the purposes and it is only some sentence modifications between the both (Nurkancana and Sumartana, 1983).
Attitude test contained several statements about the existing turtles, and then student?s immediately response concerning the statements could determine their appreciation, positive attitude, and environmental awareness (Nurkancana and Sumartana, 1983; Sukmadinata, 2005). This attitude measurement was performed together with the posttest one week after completing the STP.
    

Fig.1

The printed materials include module, photo, leaflet, poster, pretest, posttest, and attitude test were prepared for each targeted SD in Bengkulu City.

3. Workshop of turtle conservation.
In 2004, all SD in Bengkulu City were decided as target area of Science Education Quality Improvement Project (SEQIP; organized by the Deutsche Gesellschat Fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) Jakarta Office, and Dr. Aceng Ruyani, biologist, a senior educative staff of Bengkulu University, acted as the consultant for the project. SEQIP developed a model of STP for SD which is principally adopted the constructivism approach contains three stages are introduction, core, and resolution (Aryulina, 2005). SEQIP 2004 selected seventeen science teachers to train them concerning some effective strategy how to prepare, teach, and evaluate science for SD student. The six steps of successive SEQIP training were performed during the period of eight months, and then obtained seventeen science teachers (called Pemandu Bidang Studi; PBS) whom have highly competency and commitment to improve science education at their group of SD (Gugus) in Bengkulu City. The trained seventeen science teachers were invited to participate on the workshop of turtle conservation education program to make the same interpretation concerning both goal and procedures for the purpose.  
The workshop was performed, January 27, 2007, at SDN 09 in Bengkulu City, was attended by fifteen PBS and five undergraduate biological education students of Bengkulu University. Based on the prepared module of teacher reference, participants of the workshop used it to look a procedure how to supplement and teach turtle education through the regular STP for SD. On this stage, Bhakti Karyadi, M.Pd, an educative staff of Bengkulu University whom has been trained by GTZ Jakarta Office, participated as a teaching model for the workshop.

4. Implementation of turtle conservation on the real class. 
Implementation of turtle conservation on the real class was performed during period of February 15-28, 2007 by the fifteen PBS of SD and each of them were assisted by two undergraduate biological education students of Bengkulu University. The prepared module and some recommendations of the workshop were applied by the fifteen PBS on their regular STP for SD. This stage was aimed to increase student?s knowledge, perception, attitude, and awareness about the existing turtles, then to stimulate their personal internalisation, make the new generation more informed and involved for a sustainable turtles.
After finishing the implementation of turtle conservation education program, students hopefully could; (1) Know simple minimal three methods to recognize kind of turtles (Maita et al., 2007). (2)  Know well minimal four kinds of turtle and their habitat which were exciting in Bengkulu province. (3) Understand minimal three steps of turtle rescue when students found the reptile in their environment. These two cognitive and one psychomotor competency are not significant progress without followed by transformation of student?s attitude. Simple indicator for its attitude transformation could be expressed through measurement degree of student appreciates about the exiting of turtles. 
According to the SD curriculum remains effective (Depdiknas, 2004), the implementations were targeted on fifth class of SD (11 years old), and duration of each STP was about 80 minutes. Live turtle specimens and printed materials (module, leaflet, photo, poster, pretest, posttest, and attitude measurement) were prepared for every location of targeted schools. Teaching procedures of turtle conservation basically followed the scenario which is planed on the module; meanwhile improvisation could also be created according to the workshop recommendations and personal style of each teacher.
There are seven successive steps of each STP processes; (a) pretest, (b) introduction, (c) core activities, (d) resolution, (e) posttest, and (f) student?s attitude measurement. The core activities are subsequently include observation and discussion concerning; (1) simple method to determine kind of turtles, (2) turtle behavior and their habitat, (3) turtle rescue from some destructive conditions. Posttest and student?s attitude measurement were performed separately one week after implementing the STP.

 

Table 1.

The real class implementation of turtle conservation education program which was involved fifteen trained science teachers (PBS) and 515 students of elementary school (SD) in Bengkulu City.

No.

Location of elementary school (SD)

Name of Science Teacher

Number of student

Knowledge

Attitude

Pretest [a]

Posttest [b] (x)

Result [b-a](%)

Score (y)

Category

r

1

SDN 01 Bengkulu

Latifah

44

57.6

65.6

8.1(14.1)

48.2

Excellent

0.5

2

SDN 52 Bengkulu

Zahara

33

53.9

59.8

9.4(17.4)

49.0

Excellent

0.4

3

SDN 06 Bengkulu

Kasidi

23

34.4

62.6

27.5(80.1)

46.6

Excellent

0.6

4

SDN 67 Bengkulu

Arsalna

29

49.3

72.1

22.4(45.4)

49.0

Excellent

0.9

5

SDN 75 Bengkulu

Salmi

47

28.7

60.3

32.2(112.1)

48.9

Excellent

1.0

6

SDN 27 Bengkulu

Zuliarti

25

53.2

57.6

4.4(8.3)

48.3

Excellent

0.2

7

SDN 71 Bengkulu

Hartini

49

45.3

60.3

15.0(33.0)

48.1

Excellent

0.4

8

SDN 09 Bengkulu

Sri Sudarti

24

58.8

59.8

1.0(1.7)

47.3

Excellent

0.8

9

SDN 86 Bengkulu

Ristianah

25

45.4

55.5

9.0(19.8)

44.5

Good

0.5

10

SDN 58 Bengkulu

Neti Suryani

36

24.2

76.4

52.5(217.1)

47.4

Excellent

0.5

11

SDN 05 Bengkulu

Neti Herawati

41

54.9

62.8

8.4(15.3)

49.3

Excellent

0.9

12

SDN 73 Bengkulu

Priyanti Yohana

35

49.4

53.9

5.3(10.8)

42.6

Good

0.7

13

SDN 74 Bengkulu

Nilailah

40

53.0

71.4

20.3(38.3)

45.8

Good

0.7

14

SDN 20 Bengkulu

Ika Purwanti

35

61.1

76.0

15.0(24.5)

51.1

Excellent

0.2

15

SDN 51 Bengkulu

Uniarti

29

43.8

63.7

20.5(46.9)

45.2

Good

0.6

Total/average

515

47.5

63.8

16.7(35.2)

47.4

Excellent

0.6

Note:
a. r = coefficient correlation between Posttest (x) and Attitude score (y)
b. Attitude score category:  >15 = bad; 16-30 = enough; 31-45 = good; 46-60 = excellent

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The fifteen PBS in Bengkulu City could adopt easily the idea of integrating turtle conservation message into the regularly STP for SD. Their enough experiences with the model of STP and socialization through the workshop were really useful for supporting the program (Fig.2)  A problem was appeared when they have to realize ?a concept of the first hand experience in science education?, the PBS did not able to prepare live turtle specimen as a resource of learning in their class. In solving the problem, it was absolutely necessary to prepare time schedule how to move the live specimen collection of turtles in fresh condition from ones SD to the next. Fortunately in this context each implementation of STP was assisted by two undergraduate students of Bengkulu University

Fig.2

Ones of the fifteen PBS in Bengkulu City implemented the idea of integrating turtle conservation message into regularly science teaching plan (STP) on elementary school (SD).

General student?s impression indicated that the model of STP was interesting and previously they never see or touch directly the existing animals (Fig.3). It was really the first hand experience for them and then they also agreed with message of their teacher; ?Know, lovely, and protect the existing of turtles!?. Furthermore obtained qualitative data from the implementation which was involved the amount of 515 students is presented on Table 1. The obtained data revealed highly variety that means student condition of the fifteen targeted SD are heterogeneous in some aspects. It should be noticed that Bengkulu City is not the big city like as Jakarta or Surabaya, in the border of the city is still easy to find some natural habitat, meanwhile unfortunately average previous knowledge about turtles is really law (47.5). The reality may be caused by the turles are not present in around of the city or majority of the students have no enough experience to familiar with their environment.
Some experts in education agreed that indicator degree of the effective STP is not fair if it calculated only by the final results, but it should be considerated by the gap between pre- and posttest (Sukmadinata, 2005). Of course the effective model of STP is also depend on teacher?s preformace as the facilitator during the activity. On this context, Neti Suryani, from SDN 58 Bengkulu, could appear the best achievement (52.5) compared the others. According to the fact, she is reasionable to note hers as the potential SD teacher in science. It could be generalized that the model of STP implementation on fifteen targeted SD incerased significantly (35.2%) knowledge of students about the matter. Furthermore the model could be recommended to apply later as the supplement message of turtle consevation for local curriculum at certain SD in Indonesia.
 Attitude means personal immediately appreciation and awareness as response to certain environmental conditions in form social and/or physical stimulus (Nurkancana and Sumartana, 1983). It is widely believed that knowledge is an important factor in developing some attitudes and then the internalized attitudes will be expressed later in certain behavior (Mar?at, 1982; Sukmadinata, 2005). The model of STP tried to improve student?s knowledge about turtle conservation through the real class activity. Quantitative results of the effort revealed that degree of appreciation and environmental awareness concerning the existing turtles is 47.4 which classified as ?excellent? and has a correlation (r=0.6) with the score of posttest. This degree of appreciation and environmental awareness are psychological internalization process which is necessary be followed by successive and repeat enforcements.

Fig.3

General student?s impression indicated that the model of STP was interesting and previously they never see or touch directly the existing turtles. ?Know, lovely, and protect the existing of turtles!?.

CONCLUSIONS

It can be concluded that the model of science teaching plan (STP) can increase significantly the knowledge of students about turtle conservation which is linked with degree of their appreciation, and environmental awareness concerning the existing turtles. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The research was sponsored by Turtle Survival Alliance (TSA) with the help of Brian D. Horne and Rick Hudson. Turtle identification and workshop were supported respectively by Prof. Dr. Djoko T. Iskandar and Bhakti Karyadi, M.Pd. Implementation on the real classes were organized by Khaidir Alma, S.Pd with the nice collaboration of fifteen PBS and nine undergraduate students from Bengkulu University.

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